Ingestion of food containing spores of the pathogen Ascosphaera apis causes a fatal fungal disease known as chalk brood in honeybee larvae. However, larvae must be chilled to about 30°C (normal brood-comb temperature is 33-36°C) for the disease to develop. Accordingly, chalk brood is most common in spring and in small colonies. A recent study revealed that honeybees responsible for hive-temperature maintenance purposely raised the hives’ temperature when colonies were inoculated with A.apis. this “fever,” or up-regulation of temperature, occurred before any larvae died, suggesting that the response is preventative and that either honeybee workers detect the infection before symptoms are visible or larvae communicate the ingestion of the pathogen.
Temperature returned to normal by the end of the study, suggesting that increased temperature is not optimal when broods are not infected, as well as that the fever does not result merely from normal colony growth (i.e., an increase in the number of workers available for temperature maintenance).
【文章说了一种病原体,简称A病原体.蜜蜂幼虫吃了含有A的食物之后,体内会长一种致命的菌简称CB.但是CB要在低于幼虫正常体温的情况下才会发作,所以CB主要是在春天侵害小规模的蜜蜂群. 最近一个研究发现.在蜂群感染了A之后,那些负责维持蜂房温度的蜜蜂会有意识地提高蜂房温度. 而这个"发烧现象",或者说温度的提升是在没有一个幼虫(因病)死亡之前发生的.(这个现象)可能说明蜜蜂的这一反应(提高温度)是一个保护性措施.而且(还说明)要么是那些蜜蜂在感染症状出现之前就发现了它们,要么就是幼虫把感染信息告诉了蜜蜂. 实验结束的时候,(蜂房的温度)又恢复正常了,说明升高的温度并不是蜂群的最佳温度,也说明这个"发烧现象"不仅仅是蜂群数量增大的结果.】
24. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) discuss the findings and implications of a particular study
(B) illustrate a process that formerly had been misunderstood
(C) outline the methods used to investigate a problem
(D) provide evidence to support a controversial theory
(E) contrast alternative interpretations of certain date
25. According to the passage, researchers concluded that fever in honeybee colonies ispreventative because their study showed that such fever
(A) does not occur when hive temperatures are within normal range 该行为不发生在蜂房温度正常的情况下.(应该非常好排除吧,升温和蜂房原来温度无关,只有感染了才会升)
(B) protests adult bees from contracting chalk brood infection 防止成年蜜蜂接触感染.(升温的作用是防止发作,文章中没有提到是否能隔绝传染. )
(C) occurs prior to the death of any larvae 在任何幼虫死亡之前发生.
(D) is more likely to occur in spring than in summer 相较于在夏天,更可能在春天发生. (than是GRE阅读中需要引起注意的词.文中没有明确指出,不如C来得更直接,而且有点答非所问.)
(E) does not have an effect on uninfected broods 对于没有感染的蜜蜂没有影响.(答非所问).
26. The passage implies that if hive temperature had not returned to normal by the end of the study in question, a probable conclusion of the researchers would have been that
(这题牵涉到对文章最后一句的理解,只要取反就可以了.所以我觉得是B,这题争议比较严重.其实最后一句的意思就是最终的实验结果(温度回归)说明暂时升高的 温度不是蜂群的最爱---说明是不得以而为之;而后半句温度升高不仅仅是蜜蜂数量的增多,说明热量不是数量上升累积的结果而是有别的什么因素促成.换而言 之还是说明了温度升高是有意识地保护行为.所以回答这题的时候把这两点的想法取反就OK了)
(A) up-regulation of temperature is a preventative measure against chalk brood 说明升温是保护性措施. (和上述说法取反后不同吧.)
(B) honeybees are incapable of purposely raising hive temperatures 蜜蜂不能有意识地升高蜂房温度. (正确,符合上述第二个说法取反的结果).
(C) A. apis cannot be completely eradicated through up-regulation of temperature along 说明仅仅通过升温A不能完全被消除. (到底A有没有被消除实验没有说吧.)
(D) honeybee larvae have a mechanism to alert adult honeybees to the presence of A. apis 幼虫有能力向成年蜜蜂报警. (完全没关系的回答吧.)
(E) honeybee larvae may benefit from increased hive temperature even when there is no A. apis present 即使没有A,幼虫可能从增高的温度中获益. (这个推测过远了吧,如果温度没降下也不能说明幼虫可能获益吧,相较于E,B更加合适吧.)
27. According to the passage, which of the following is true of chalk brood infection among honeybee larvae?
(A) Larvae in small colonies are more likely to pass the infection to adult honeybees than are larvae in large ones. 相较于大蜂群,小蜂群中的幼虫更容易把感染传给成年蜂(文章中根本没说病毒传染的问题吧).
(B) Infection with chalk brood induces larvae to raise their hive’s temperature. 感染使得幼虫升高蜂房的温度. (这是成年蜜蜂干的活吧.)
(C) The infection is more likely to affect larvae in winter than in spring. 相比于春天,感染更容易在冬天发生.(虽然冬天看上去温度低,但是文章说是春天,我们不能以自己先入为主的来做题.)
(D) Larvae fail to develop symptoms of the disease when their brood –comb temperature remains within the normal range. 在蜂群温度正常的时候幼虫身上没有任何感染的病症.(文章中说到过在病症出来之前成年蜂就开始增加蜂房的温度了,说明没出病症的时候蜂房温度是正常的.)
(E) Infected larvae exhibit visible symptoms of disease for a significant time before death. 被感染的幼虫在死前会有相当长的一段时间表现出可见的病症. (a significant time 完全臆测).