1. The university's constitution defines the powers of two governing bodies.The general council, which currently retains authority over constitutional matters, consists of all the university's living alumni.The twenty-member senate decides routine matters by majority vote.A new proposal suggests making a unanimous vote in the senate sufficient to change the constitution. If the statements above are true, which of the fol- lowing must follow on the basis of them?
(A) The proposal will take effect only if it receives the senate's unanimous support.
(B) Currently each member of the senate has power of veto over any proposal that comes before that body.
(C) Adopting the proposal would allow passage of constitutional changes without the general council's approval.
(D) Any of the university's alumni can fill any one of the twenty seats on the senate.
(E) Adopting the new proposal would increase the voice of the alumni in the conduct of university affairs.
2.Comparison of the growth rings of ancient trees enables scientists to determine from a piece of tim-
ber the year in which the tree used for the tim- ber was felled.Hence, by analyzing the growth rings in timber surviving from ancient buildings, archaeolo- gists can determine precisely when those buildings were constructed. Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
(A) The timber used for construction purposes in ancient times was made from very old trees.
(B) The timber that was used in ancient building construction had not, prior to being used in the
construction of the buildings, lain unused for an indeterminable amount of time.
(C) The growth rings of any tree felled in a given year are identical to the growth rings of any other tree felled in that year.
(D) The oldest of the ancient buildings that survive to the present day were constructed of the most
(E) Ancient builders did not use more than one type of wood for the construction of a given
3.Color-tinting of movies originally photographed in black-and-white is inappropriate.Hundreds of the original artistic choices would have been made differently had these movies been filmed in color. Lighting on the sets of these movies was arranged to make highlights and shadows look right in black-and-white. Which of the following claims, if substituted for the claim about the lighting of movie sets, would lend the same type of support to the argument above?
(A) An important part of what gives these movies their identity is the result of the black-and- white format.
(B) Color film would have better captured the film- makers' intentions.
(C) Color film is superior to black-and-white film for making movies.
(D) Makeup for the actors was applied so as to look best in black-and-white films.
(E) The choice of black-and-white film over color film is entirely a matter of taste.
4.In Borkland, university scholarship stipends worth $4.2 million were unclaimed last year because several scholarship programs attracted no applicants who met the programs' qualifying criteria.This is an egregious waste of funds in a country where thousands of promising students each year cannot afford tuition.Qualifying criteria for those scholarships, therefore, should be revised. Which of the following, if true about Borkland, most strongly supports the conclusion drawn above?
(A) Many scholarships are unclaimed not because their qualifying criteria are too restrictive but because the scholarship programs rarely announce the scholarships' availability.
(B) Because of inflation, the stipends offered by certain scholarship programs now appear less attractive to potential applicants than they did when they were first offered.
(C) A significant number of scholarship programs awarded all of their available scholarship stipends last year, yet most of those programs have very restrictive qualifying criteria.
(D) Certain scholarship programs accept applications only from students enrolled in specific major fields of study, but Borkland's universities no longer offer courses in the fields specified by many of those programs.
(E) Several scholarship programs have found it impossible to revise their qualifying criteria without engaging in lengthy and costly legal proceedings.
5.In Diersville the new Environmental Action party won two seats on the seven-member town council in 1988.It lost both of those seats in the 1992 election, even though the party's pro-environment platform had essentially remained unchanged.This decline in the party's fortunes clearly demonstrates that in Diersville environmental concerns faded in significance between 1988 and 1992. Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?
(A) Between 1988 and 1992, the number of eligible voters in Diersville rose, but not the percentage who actually voted.
(B) Between 1988 and 1992, Diersville's leading political party revised its platform, adopting a strongly environmentalist stance.
(C) The parties that ran candidates in the 1992 elec- tion in Diersville were the same as those that had done so in the 1988 election.
(D) In 1992 the Environmental Action party won fewer votes in Diersville than it had won in 1988.
(E) Between 1988 and 1992, some measures intended to benefit the environment had been adopted by the town council, but with inconclusive results.
6.The United States is not usually thought of as a nation of parakeet lovers.Yet in a census of parakeet owners in selected comparable countries, the United States ranked second, with eleven parakeet owners per hundred people.The conclusion can be drawn from this that people in the United States are more likely to own parakeets than are people in most other countries. Knowledge of which of the following would be most useful in judging the accuracy of the conclusion?
(A) The number of parakeets in the United States.
(B) The number of parakeet owners in the United States.
(C) The number of parakeet owners per hundred people in the country that ranked first in the census.
(D) The number of parakeet owners in the United States compared to the numbers of owners of other pet birds in the United States.
(E) The numbers of parakeet owners per hundred people in the countries not included in the census.
7. Until 1984 only aspirin and acetaminophen shared the lucrative nonprescription pain-reliever market. In 1984, however, ibuprofen was expected to account for fifteen percent of all nonprescription pain-reliever sales.On that basis business experts predicted for 1984 a corresponding fifteen percent decrease in the combined sales of aspirin and acetaminophen. The prediction mentioned in the last sentence above was based on which of the following assumptions?
(A) Most consumers would prefer ibuprofen to both aspirin and acetaminophen.
(B) Aspirin, acetaminophen, and ibuprofen all relieve headache pain and muscular aches, but aspirin and ibuprofen can also cause stomach irritation.
(C) Before 1984 ibuprofen was available only as a prescription medicine.
(D) The companies that manufacture and sell aspirin and acetaminophen would not also manufacture and sell ibuprofen.
(E) The introduction of ibuprofen would not increase total sales of nonprescription pain reliever.
8. New regulations in Mullentown require manufac- turers there to develop five-year pollution-reduction plans. The regulations require that each manufacturer develop a detailed plan for reducing its released pol- lutants by at least 50 percent. Clearly, the regulations will not result in significant pollution reduction, how- ever, since the regulations do not force manufacturers to implement their plans. Which of the following, if true, most weakens the argument?
(A) Mullentown's manufacturing plants are not the only source of pollution there.
(B) Detailed plans would reveal that measures to reduce released pollutants would also reduce manufacturers' costs for materials, waste disposal, and legal services
(C) Pollutants that manufacturing processes create but that are not released directly into the environment must nonetheless be collected and prepared for disposal
(D) Any reductions in pollutants released from Mullentown's manufacturing plants would not be noticeable for at least five years.
(E) Each manufacturer will be required to submit its plan to a committee appointed by Mullentown's officials.
9. To produce seeds, plants must first produce flowers. Two kinds of tarragon plants, Russian tarragon and French tarragon, look very similar except that Russian tarragon produces flowers and French tar- ragon does not. The leaves of Russian tarragon, however, lack the distinctive flavor that makes French tarragon a desirable culinary herb If the information presented is true, which of the fol- lowing can most reliably be concluded on the basis of it?
(A) As a decorative plant, French tarragon is more desirable than Russian tarragon.
(B) The flowers of Russian tarragon plants are prob- ably not flavorful.
(C) Plants that grow from seeds sold in a packet labeled "tarragon" are not French tarragon.
(D) There are no other kinds of tarragon besides Russian tarragon and French tarragon
(E) Garden plants that have flavorful leaves generally do not produce flowers.
10. In the United States, the financing of industrial research by private industrial firms remained steady as a percentage of sales during the period between 1968 and 1978 (after correcting for inflation). But slowdowns in the growth of industrial productivity also occurred during that period, a fact that refutes the notion that the growth of industrial productivity is directly proportional to the amount invested in industrial research.Which of the following, if true for the United States,most weakens the argument above?
(A) Federal funds, which constituted a significant portion of the support for industrial research from 1968 to 1978, fell annually and substan- tially during that period.
(B) The inflation that occurred between 1968 and 1978 was more severe than leading economists had expected.
(C) Industrial executives generally favor investing an appreciably larger portion of corporate funds in short-term product development than in basic research.
(D) The scientists and engineers who worked in industry from 1968 to 1978 were, as a group,more experienced in their jobs than were those who worked in industry during the previous ten-year period.
(E) Corporate financing of industrial research increased in several of the years immediatelyfollowing 1978 (after correcting for inflation)
11.A group of paintings made approximately 15,000 years ago in a cave in the Loire River valley in what is now France depicts a number of different animals. One of the animals depicted seems to resemble the chiru, a rare antelope of the Himalayas.
Which of the following, if true, best supports the hypothesis that in painting the animal that resembles a chiru the cave artist painted a chiru with which she or he was familiar?
(A) There are numerous representations of imaginary animals in cave paintings of similar age.
(B) Fossilized remains of a chiru, approximately 16,000 years old, have been found at the northern end of the valley.
(C) The cave that contains the depiction of an animal that resembles a chiru contains stylized repre- sentations of plant life.
(D) Older caves from the same region contain no representations of animals that resemble a chiru.
(E) The antlers of the animal in the painting are longer than those of the mature Himalayan chiru.
12. Although many brands of gasoline are sold on Haibei Island, gasoline companies there get all of the refined gasoline they sell from Haibei seaport's only storage tank, which is always refilled with the same quality of gasoline. Therefore, the brands of gasoline of sale on Haibei may be different in name and price, but they are identical in quality. The conclusion drawn above depends on which of the following assumptions?
(A) Consumers are usually unaware of variations in the quality of the gasoline they buy unless those variations are announced by the gasoline companies.
(B) When tankers make gasoline deliveries at Haibei's seaport, the storage tank on Haibei always receives the same quantity of gasoline as that in the preceding delivery.
(C) There is a wide variation in the prices at which the different brands of gasoline on Haibei are sold.
(D) If any gasoline company on Haibei alters the quality of its gasoline before sale, the other gasoline companies also use methods before sale that result in the same change in the quality of their gasoline .
(E) The gasoline storage tank on Haibei is large enough to meet the needs of all of Haibei's different gasoline companies.