1) Simile：(明喻)It is a figure of speech which makes a comparison between two unlike elements having at least one quality or characteristic in common. To make the comparison， words like as， as……as， as if and like are used to transfer the quality we associate with one to the other.For example， As cold waters to a thirsty soul， so is good news from a far country.
2) Metaphor：(暗喻)It is like a simile， also makes a comparison between two unlike elements， but unlike a simile， this comparison is implied rather than stated.For example， the world is a stage.
3) Analogy： (类比)It is also a form of comparison， but unlike simile or metaphor which usually uses comparison on one point of resemblance， analogy draws a parallel between two unlike things that have several common qualities or points of resemblance.
When comes to the issue of empowerment
1. This point can be better illustrated by comparing a class(你熟悉的) with a business(你不熟悉的)。 然后business bla bla…
2.Teachers who possess power and exert it to conduct class play a similar role as business managers do. 然后，只讨论课堂不讨论商业了
Student who is granted/ given/ empowered/ endowed……… are more motivated… power are not rightly supervised and restricted and the class get out of control will lead to/ result in/ turn into/ prove to be flop/ fiasco/ blunder/failure/ catastrophe…
3. Elaborate a class进行详细的class描写
4. 点睛之笔 So is a business.类比其实就是某种层面上的跑题，大部分的跑题是无意识的，但是我们要让这种有目的的跑题为我们的文章服务，这就是学习类比修辞的意义所在。
4) Personification： (拟人)It gives human form of feelings to animals， or life and personal attributes(赋予) to inanimate(无生命的) objects， or to ideas and abstractions(抽象)。For example， the wind whistled through the trees.
5) Hyperbole： (夸张) It is the deliberate use of overstatement or exaggeration to achieve emphasis.
For instance， he almost died laughing.
6) Understatement： (含蓄陈述) It is the opposite of hyperbole， or overstatement. It achieves its effect of emphasizing a fact by deliberately(故意地) understating it， impressing the listener or the reader more by what is merely implied or left unsaid than by bare statement.For instance， It is no laughing matter.
7) Euphemism： (委婉) It is the substitution of an agreeable or inoffensive(无冒犯) expression for one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant.For instance， we refer to "die" as " pass away".
8) Metonymy (转喻) It is a figure of speech that has to do with the substitution of the mane of one thing for that of another.For instance， the pen (words) is mightier than the sword (forces).
9) Synecdoche (提喻) It is involves the substitution of the part for the whole， or the whole for the part.For instance， they say there‘s bread and work for all. She was dressed in silks.
10) Antonomasia (换喻)It has also to do with substitution. It is not often mentioned now， though it is still in frequent use.
For example， Solomon for a wise man. Daniel for a wise and fair judge. Judas for a traitor.
11) Pun： (双关语) It is a play on words， or rather a play on the form and meaning of words.
For instance， a cannon-ball took off his legs， so he laid down his arms. (Here "arms" has two meanings： a person‘s body; weapons carried by a soldier.)