1. Patel: Although enrollment in the region's high school has been decreasing for several years, enrollment at the elementary school has grown considerably. Therefore, the regional school board proposes building a new elementary school.
Quintero: Another solution would be to convert some high school classrooms temporarily into classrooms for elementary school students.
Which of the following, if true, most helps to support Quintero's alternative proposal?
(A) Some rooms at the high school cannot be con-verted into rooms suitable for the use of ele-mentary school students.
(B) The cost of building a high school is higher than the cost of building an elementary school.
(C) Although the birth rate has not increased, the number of families sending their children to the region's high school has increased markedly.
(D) A high school atmosphere could jeopardize the safety and self-confidence of elementary school students.
(E) Even before the region's high school population began to decrease, several high school class-rooms rarely needed to be used.
2. Peter: More than ever before in Risland, college graduates with science degrees are accepting permanent jobs in other fields. That just goes to show that scientists in Risland are not being paid enough.
Lila: No, it does not. These graduates are not working in science for the simple reason that there are not enough jobs in science in Risland to employ all of these graduates.
Which of the following, if true in Risland, would most undermine the reasoning in Peter's argument?
(A) The college graduates with science degrees who are not working in science are currently earning lower salaries than they would earn as scientists.
(B) Fewer college students than ever before are receiving degrees in science.
(C) The number of jobs in science has steadily risen in the last decade.
(D) A significant number of college graduates with science degrees worked at low-paying jobs while they were in college.
(E) Every year some recent college graduates with science degrees accept permanent jobs in nonscientific fields.
3.Counselor: Every year a popular newsmagazine pub-lishes a list of United States colleges, ranking them according to an overall numerical score that is a composite of ratings according to sev-eral criteria. However, the overall scores gen-erally should not be used by students as the basis for deciding to which colleges to apply.
Which of the following, if true, most helps to justify the counselor's recommendation?
(A) The vast majority of people who purchase the magazine in which the list appears are not college-bound students.
(B) Colleges that are ranked highest in the magazine's list use this fact in advertisements aimed at attracting students.
(C) The rankings seldom change from one year to the next.
(D) The significance that particular criteria have for any two students is likely to differ according to the students' differing needs.
(E) Some college students who are pleased with their schools considered the magazine's rankings before deciding which college to attend.
4. A thorough search of Edgar Allan Poe's correspon-dence has turned up not a single letter in which he mentions his reputed morphine addiction. On the basis of this evidence it is safe to say that Poe's reputation for having been a morphine addict is undeserved and that reports of his supposed addiction are untrue.
Which of the following is assumed by the argument above?
(A) Reports claiming that Poe was addicted to mor-phine did not begin to circulate until after his death.
(B) None of the reports of Poe's supposed morphine addiction can be traced to individuals who actu-ally knew Poe.
(C) Poe's income from writing would not have been sufficient to support a morphine addiction.
(D) Poe would have been unable to carry on an extensive correspondence while under the influence of morphine.
(E) Fear of the consequences would not have pre-vented Poe from indicating in his correspon-dence that he was addicted to morphine.
5. Adelle: The government's program to reduce the unemployment rate in the province of Carthena by encouraging job creation has failed, since the rate there has not changed appreciably since the program began a year ago.
Fran: But the unemployment rate in Carthena had been rising for three years before the program began, so the program is helping.
Which of the following, if true, most strongly counters Fran's objection to Adelle's argument?
(A) The government is advised by expert economists, some of whom specialize in employment issues.
(B) The unemployment rate in the province of Carthena has historically been higher than that of the country as a whole.
(C) The current government was elected by a wide margin, because of its promises to reduce the unemployment rate in Carthena.
(D) Around the time the government program began, large numbers of unemployed Carthena residents began leaving the province to look for work elsewhere.
(E) The unemployment rate in Carthena had been relatively stable until shortly before the current government took office.
6. Soft Drink Manufacturer：Our new children's soft drink, RipeCal, is fortified with calcium.Since calcium is essential for developing healthy bones, drinking RipeCal regularly will help make children healthy.Consumer Advocate：But RipeCal also contains large amounts of sugar, and regularly consuming large amounts of sugar is unhealthful, especially for children.
In responding to the soft drink manufacturer, the consumer advocate does which of the following?
(A)Challenges the manufacturer's claim about the nutritional value of calcium in children's diets
(B)Argues that the evidence cited by the manufac-turer, when properly considered, leads to a conclusion opposite to that reached by the manufacturer.
(C)Implies that the manufacturer of a product is typically unconcerned with the nutritional value of that product.
(D)Questions whether a substance that is healthful when eaten in moderation can be unhealthful when eaten in excessive amounts.
(E)Presents additional facts that call into question the conclusion drawn by the manufacturer.
7.Over a period of several months, researchers attached small lights to the backs of wetas—flightless insects native to New Zealand—enabling researchers for the first time to make comprehensive observations of the insects' nighttime activities.Thus, since wetas forage only at night, the researchers' observations will significantly improve knowledge of the normal foraging habits of wetas.
Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
(A) Researchers were interested only in observing the wetas' foraging habits and so did not keep track of other types of behavior.
(B) No pattern of behavior that is exhibited by wetas during the nighttime is also exhibited by wetas during the daytime.
(C)Attaching the small lights to the wetas' backs did not greatly alter the wetas' normal night-time foraging habits.
(D)Wetas typically forage more frequently during the months in which the researchers studied them than they do at other times.
(E)The researchers did not use other observational techniques to supplement their method of using small lights to track the nighttime behavior of wetas.
8.People whose bodies cannot produce the substance cytochrome P450 are three times as likely to develop Parkinson's disease, a disease that affects the brain,as are people whose bodies do produce this substance.Since cytochrome P450 protects the brain from toxic chemicals, toxic chemicals probably play a role in the development of Parkinson's disease.
Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the argument?
(A)It will soon be possible for cytochrome P450 to be synthesized for the treatment of people whose bodies cannot produce this substance.
(B)Many people whose bodies are unable to produce cytochrome P450 lack the ability to produce certain other substances as well.
(C)Cytochrome P450 has no effect on the brain other than to protect it from toxic chemicals.
(D)People with Parkinson's disease often exhibit a marked lessening in the severity of their symp-toms when they are treated with dopamine, a chemical produced naturally in the brain.
(E)Many people with Parkinson's disease have the ability to produce cytochrome P450 naturally.
9.The early universe contained only the lightest elements, hydrogen and helium. Heavier elements,such as carbon, form only in nuclear reactions in stars and are dispersed when the stars explode. A recently discovered gas cloud contained carbon several billion years ago, when the universe was no more than two billion years old.
If the statements above are true, which of the following must, on the basis of them, also be true?
(A)The earliest stars contained only hydrogen.
(B)Some stars were formed before the universe was two billion years old.
(C)The carbon in the gas cloud later formed part of some stars.
(D)No stars identified to date are as old as the gas cloud.
(E)The gas cloud also contained hydrogen and helium.
10.Sleep deprivation is a known cause of workplace error, and many physicians frequently go without sleep for periods of 24 hours or more. However, few of these physicians have, in the course of a routine examination by a peer, been diagnosed with sleep deprivation.So there is little cause for concern that habitual sleep deprivation will cause widespread physician error.
The answer to which of the following questions would be most helpful in evaluating the argument?
(A)Do physicians who have been diagnosed with sleep disorders also show signs of other ills not related to sleep deprivation?
(B)Is the ability to recognize the symptoms of sleep deprivation in others significantly impaired by habitual sleep deprivation?
(C)Do factors other than habitual sleep deprivation ever lead to errors in the workplace on the part of physicians?
(D)Of people who have recently been treated by physicians, what percentage believe that many physicians have occasionally suffered from sleep
(E)Is the incidence of sleep deprivation higher among physicians than it is among other health care workers?
11.A list of the fifteen operas most frequently performed in recent times includes no works by the nineteenth-century German composer Richard Wagner. Although music producers tend to produce what audiences want,relative infrequency of performance probably does not indicate lack of popularity in Wagner's case, since Wagner's operas are notoriously expensive to perform on stage.
Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the conclusion of the argument above?
(A)The list of most frequently performed operas does not include operas produced by small amateur groups.
(B)Some opera companies are backed by patrons who are willing to commit large sums of money in order to enjoy lavish productions.
(C)All of the fifteen most frequently performed operas of recent times are works that have been popular for at least 75 years.
(D)More recordings have been produced recently of the works of Wagner than of the works of any other composer of opera.
(E)Operatic works of all kinds have been increasing in popularity in recent years.
12.The bodies of dwarf individuals of mammalian species are generally smaller in relation to those of nondwarf individuals than are the teeth of the dwarf individuals in relation to those of the nondwarf indi- viduals. Fragmentary skeletal remains of an adult dwarf woolly mammoth were recently found. The teeth are three-fourths the size of the teeth of an average adult nondwarf woolly mammoth.
The statements above, if true, most strongly support which of the following?
(A)The body of the dwarf woolly mammoth was less than three-fourths the size of the body of an average adult nondwarf woolly mammoth.
(B)None of the teeth of the dwarf woolly mammoth that were recently discovered was as large as any of the teeth of nondwarf woolly mammoths that have been discovered.
(C)The teeth of most adult dwarf individuals of mammalian species are three- fourths the size of the teeth of the adult nondwarf individuals of the same species.
(D)Dwarf woolly mammoths had the same number of teeth as did nondwarf woolly mammoths.
(E)Dwarf individuals of most mammalian species are generally no more than three-fourths the size of the adult nondwarf individuals of those species.
13.Excluding purchases by businesses, the average amount spent on a factory-new car has risen 30 per-cent in the last five years. In the average household budget, the proportion spent on car purchases has remained unchanged in that period. Therefore the average household budget must have increased by 30 percent over the last five years.
Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument relies?
(A)The average number of factory-new cars pur-chased per household has remained unchanged over the last five years.
(B)The average amount spent per car by businesses buying factory-new cars has risen 30 percent in the last five years.
(C)The proportion of the average household budget spent on all car-related expenses has remained unchanged over the last five years.
(D)The proportion of the average household budget spent on food and housing has remained unchanged over the last five years.
(E)The total amount spent nationwide on factory-new cars has increased by 30 percent over the last five years.