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石嘴山GRE作文写作赏析

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2015-12-12 14:12

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  新GRE作文复习,需要选择一些优秀的新GRE作文范文来当做复习材料,进行学习新GRE作文写法和模拟的样本。下面出国留学网为大家介绍一篇石嘴山GRE作文写作赏析,帮助大家复习新GRE作文,获得理想的新GRE作文分数。

  GRE作文范文

  "The reputation of anyone who is subjected to media scrutiny will eventually be diminished."

  观点陈述型作文/[题目]

  "被置于媒体审视下的任何人,其名誉终将受毁损。"

  Sample Essay

  The intensity of today's media coverage has been greatly magnified by the sheer number and types of media outlets that are available today. Intense competition for the most revealing photographs and the latest information on a subject has turned even minor media events into so-called "media frenzies". Reporters are forced by the nature of the competition to pry ever deeper for an angle on a story that no one else has been able to uncover. With this type of media coverage, it does become more and more likely that anyone who is subjected to it will have his or her reputation tarnished, as no individual is perfect. Everyone makes mistakes. The advances in technology have made much information easily and instantaneously available. Technology has also made it easier to dig further than ever before into a person's past, increasing the possibility that the subject's reputation may be harmed.

  范文正文

  当今媒体报道的力度,由于当今时代所能获得的媒体渠道那前所未有的数量和种类,从而被极大地增强。围绕着对最具暴露性的图片及对某一题材最新信息所展开的竞争,使哪怕是次要的媒体事件也转变为所谓的"媒体疯狂"。由于竞争的本质,记者们被迫就某一项报道作深度采访,以其窥探到一个任何其他人都无法揭示的视角。随着这类媒体报道的出现,任何被置于媒体报道之下的人,其名誉越来越有可能被玷污,因为"金无赤金,人无完人"。每个人都有可能犯错误。技术进步使大量的信息在第一瞬间便被轻易获取。技术也使媒体得以比以往任何时候更深入地去挖掘一个人的过去,从而更增加了当事人名誉受损的可能性。

  The above statement is much too broad, however. "Anyone" covers all people all over the world. There are people whose reputations have only been enhanced by media scrutiny. There are also people whose reputations were already so poor that media scrutiny could not possibly diminish it any further. There may very well be people that have done nothing wrong in the past, at least that can be discovered by the media, whose reputations could not be diminished by media scrutiny. To broadly state that "anyone" subjected to media coverage will have his or her status sullied implies that everyone's reputation worldwide is susceptible to damage under any type of media scrutiny. What about children, particularly newborn children? What about those people whose past is entirely unknown?

  然则,上述陈述涵盖面过于宽泛。"任何人"涵盖了世界上所有的人。有些人的名誉反而会因为媒体的聚焦而陡然显赫起来。也有些人,其名声早就如此之糟糕,以致于媒体的聚焦再也无法让它受到更坏的毁损。笼统地陈述受媒体报道的"任何人"均会使其地位被玷污,这暗示着全球每个人的名声在任何种类的媒体聚焦下均易于遭诟病。那么,对于天真无辜的孩子们,尤其新生婴儿,情况会如何?对于那些其过去根本无人知晓的人来说,情况又会是什么样呢?

  Another problem with such a broad statement is that it does not define the particular level of media scrutiny. Certainly there are different levels of media coverage. Does merely the mention of one's name in a newspaper constitute media scrutiny? What about the coverage of a single event in someone's life, for example a wedding or the birth of a baby? Is the media coverage of the heroic death of a firefighter or police officer in the line of duty ever going to diminish that person's reputation? It seems highly unlikely that in these examples, although these people may have been subjected to media scrutiny, these individual's reputations are undamaged and potentially enhanced by such exposure.

  对于这样一项笼统的陈述而言,它的另一个问题是没能明晰界定媒体聚焦的具体程度。媒体的报道毫无疑问存在程度上的差别。只在报纸上提及一个人的名字,是否算作媒体聚焦?对某人一生中单独一次事件(如婚礼或孩子出生)的报道这也算媒介聚焦吗?媒体对消防队员或警官因公而死的英雄壮举进行报道,难道也会毁损该人的名声吗?在这些实例中,其名声受损的事情极不可能发生。虽然这些人可能被置于媒体审视之下,但其名声却会完好无损,且潜在地可因这些披露而得以提高。

  Without a doubt, there are many examples of individual's whose reputations have been diminished by media scrutiny. The media's uncovering of former U.S. President Bill Clinton's affair with Monica Lewinsky will most likely overshadow the entire eight years of his administration. Basketball superstar Michael Jordan's sterling reputation has been tarnished more than once by the media; first by media coverage of his gambling habits, then most recently (and in a much more harmful manner) by news reports of his marital infidelities and the divorce from his wife of thirteen years. Fame and fortune can turn an ordinary individual into a media target where reporters will stop at almost nothing to "dig up dirt" that will sell more newspapers or entice more viewers to watch a television program. It could even be argued that media scrutiny killed Princess Diana as her car sped away from the privacy-invading cameras of reporters in Paris. There is no doubt that there are a large number of people who have been hurt in one way or another by particularly intense media scrutiny.

  毫无疑问,也有许多例子能证明一个人的名声会被媒体审视所毁损。媒体对美国前总统Bill Clinton与Monica Lewinsky的风流韵事的揭露极有可能会将其八年的执政生涯置于阴影之中。超级篮球明星Michael Jordan一世英名也被媒体不止一次地玷污,首先是被有关其赌习的媒体报道,其次是最近--且以一种更具致命性伤害的方式--被有关他婚姻不忠以及与其结婚13年的妻子分道扬镳的报道。当媒体记者不择手段去挖掘某些可促使其报纸销量大增的"猛料"时,或去诱惑更多的观众观看某一电视节目时,名和利就会将一个普通人转变为媒体追踪的目标。我们甚至可以提出这样一种论点,即正是媒体的审视将Diana王妃置于死地,随着她的汽车去竭力逃脱巴黎街头的记者们那侵犯隐私的相机镜头。毫无疑问,肯定有许多人被极其强烈的媒体聚焦以一种方式或另一种方式所伤害。

  In summary, it seems impossible that for every person that is subjected to media scrutiny, his or her reputation will eventually be diminished. Millions of people are mentioned in the media every day yet still manage to go about their lives unhurt by the media. Normal individuals that are subjected to media scrutiny can have their reputation either enhanced or damaged depending on the circumstances surrounding the media coverage. The likelihood of a diminished reputation from the media rises proportionally with the level of notoriety that an individual possesses and the outrageousness of that person's behavior. The length of time in the spotlight can also be a determining factor, as the longer the person is examined in the media, the greater the possibility that damaging information will be discovered or that the individual will do something to disparage his or her reputation. But to broadly state that media scrutiny will diminish anyone's reputation is to overstate the distinct possibility that, given a long enough time and a certain level of intensity of coverage, the media may damage a person's reputation.

  (766words)

  归纳而言,对于每个被置于媒体审视的人来说,其名声将最终受到毁损似乎并不可能。每天,有数百万人被媒体提到,但他们仍设法我行我素,不为媒体所伤害。被置于媒体审视之下的普通人,其名声或可得到提高,或可蒙受毁损,取决于围绕着媒体报道的具体情况。一个人的名声受媒体毁损的可能性,与所其拥有的臭名昭著的程度,及其行为的令人厌恶程度成正比。受媒体关注的时间长短同样也是一个决定性因素,因为一个人被媒体审视的时间越长,于他名声不利的信息越有可能被抖落出来,或者该人越有可能去做出某些于其名声不利的事情。但只是笼统地陈述媒体的审视终将毁掉一个人的名声,即是过分夸大这样一种显著的可能性,即在足够长的时间和一度程度的报道力度这两个条件下,媒体是有可能毁掉一个人的名声的。

  "史学研究只有与我们日常生活相关才有价值"这一陈述忽略了历史在人类日常活动之外的价值。这似乎是一种甚为浅薄的论点,其言下之意是,人类生活在这个世界上只是为了得以生存下去,而不是为着其孩子和环境的未来作规划。

  GRE作文范文

  Issue

  "People work more productively in teams than individually. Teamwork requires cooperation, which motivates people much more than individual competition does."

  Sample Essay

  Teamwork as a whole can naturally produce an overall greater productivity through the concept of "synergy", where the total of the whole is greater than the sum of its individual parts. But the idea that people work more productively in teams rather than as individuals is going to vary greatly between the types of teams that are organized, the end reward or motivation for both the team and the individuals, as well as the individuals themselves.

  Regarding individuals, some people are born with the desire to succeed, no matter what the situation or task that they are facing. These people may evolve into the classic "Type A" personalities that work ferociously because they are driven by an internal fire that says they must always be doing something, whether individually or as part of a team. Other people may desire to be less socially involved or are very highly competitive with other people. For these people, their work is most productive as individuals, because the very idea of cooperating with other people limits their effectiveness and efficiency because they simply do not want to be a part of the team. Whether this mindset is innate or developed over time does not matter, it is merely the state of their being and neither motivation nor rewards can generate inside them the desire to work collectively as a team.

  Some people are highly motivated by social interaction and the desire to work with others towards a collective effort. Obviously these individuals are at their most productive when working as part of a team. Organizational behavioral studies have shown that Asian cultures are much more likely to develop this type of collective behavior as opposed to the more individualistic behavior associated with Western cultures. It could naturally be assumed then that there may be cultural values that can determine whether people are at their most productive individually or as part of a team.

  Another variable is the end reward that is involved with the task at hand. Will the rewards be greater if the team works together towards a common goal, or are the rewards more geared toward individual performance? To the extent that the individual is motivated by the end reward, obviously his or her performance inside of a team may be more or less productive with respect to the entire team, depending on how the performance is rewarded. Individual goals may interfere with the group performance. Synergies may not be achieved because the individuals are not working towards a whole "sum" but rather towards an individual reward. Productivity thus will vary for each person as a team member or as an individual depending on the degree to which that person is motivated by an individual or overall team reward.

  Finally, the degree of productivity of a person will depend upon the type of team that is organized. Is the group composed of equally contributing individuals? Does the group have an outstanding leader that can motivate both the individuals and the team as a whole? From a pure productivity standpoint, the presence or absence of a charismatic and exceptional leader can make all the difference whether a person would be more productive as a part of a team or as an individual. Personality types that work well together can prove to be much more productive as part of a team than as individuals, and vice versa.

  Fundamentally, measures of productivity depend greatly on the individuals themselves. The dilemma facing leaders in all areas of life is how to best assess these individuals to determine how to best harness their capabilities to reach their ultimate productive capabilities. Whether a person is more productive alone or while working in concert with others is one of the great challenges that leaders and managers must face to accomplish tasks effectively and efficiently.

  观点陈述型作文/[题目]

  "当人们以团队的形式工作时,要比以孤军奋战的形式来得更加富有成效。团队的协同工作需要相互合作,它比个人竞争更能激励人们。"

  范文正文

  总体而言,团队的协同工作自然能通过"增效作用"(Synergy)这一理念而带来更高程度的整体生产效率,因为在这里,整体大于个体相加之总和。然则,"当人们以团队的形式工作时,要比以孤军奋战的形式来得更加富有成效"这一观念注定会产生巨大差异,取决于所组织起来的团队的类别,团队与个人所能获得的终极回报或激励,以及个人本身。

  关于个人,有些人天生就具有获取成功的欲望,无论他们所面临的情形或任务是什么。这些人会演变为工作狂这一经典的"A类"人格,因为受到一股内心的热火所驱使,这股热火时刻告诉他们必须不停地"有所事事",无论是作为个人抑或是作为团队的一分子。另一些人则可能希望不必那么多地介入社会,或者他们倾向于与其他人激烈竞争。对这些人而言,作为个人,他们工作起来会最富有成效,因为由于他们根本就不想成为任何团队的一部分,与他人合作便会限制他们的效率。这一思想倾向是否与生俱有,还是随着时间的推移而形成,这都无关紧要。这仅仅只是他们的一种生存状态,无论是动机还是回报,都无法在其内心深处激发起作为一个团队集体工作的欲望。

  有些人,由于社会互动以及与他人协作去实现某种集体努力的欲望,而具有极强的动机。显然,这些个人在作为团队的一部分进行工作时,他们便会处在其最富有成效的状态。组织行为学研究表明,亚洲文化更有可能形成此类集体性行为,与那种常和西方文化联系在一起的较为个人主义的行为构成对比。这样,人们自然会认为,某些文化价值观可以决定人们是否作为个人还是作为团队的一部分工作起来最富有成效。

  Finally, the writer notes that the decline in the amphibian population has been blamed on the introduction of trout into the park's waters in 1920, but then dismisses that argument on the purely specious basis that it does not explain the worldwide decline. This part of the argument blithely dismisses the very relevant fact that trout are known to eat amphibian eggs. This attempt to "prove a negative" is the last resort of those in search of some vain attempt to prove the truth of the matter that they are asserting. It is basically impossible to "prove a negative"; this is an attempt to shift the burden of proof back on to the nonbelievers of the argument. The global environmental situation and that of Yosemite National Park are not perfectly correlated, and the fact that the trout may very well be responsible for the decline cannot simply be dismissed without further proof.

  GRE作文范文

  Issue

  "Colleges and universities should offer more courses on popular music, film, advertising and television because contemporary culture has much greater relevance for students than do arts and literature of the past."

  Sample Essay

  To the extent that contemporary culture is, by definition, current, it does have a much more immediate impact on students and people in general than do the arts and literature of the past. Contemporaneous events directly affect everyone alive at the time because they are occurring at precisely the same time as the individual's existence. But to paraphrase a famous philosopher: "Those who do not learn from history are doomed to repeat it." To a great extent, past arts and literature shape who we are as people at least as much as, if not more than, contemporary culture does.

  Everyone alive today is affected in one way or another by the events of the past. Past events have directly led to the way that the world is shaped today. The arts and literature are one of the most well-preserved and documented resources that can give us a direct link into what actually happened in the past. Consider the religious writings of the Bible, the Koran and those of Confucius, as well as those related to Buddhism, Hinduism and all other religions. These writings directly relate to, and in some cases to a great extent control, the behavior of human beings today even though most were written hundreds if not thousands of years ago. Artworks relating to these religions also have a profound effect. Consider Michelangelo's work in the Sistine Chapel at the Vatican, or the vast myriad of historic Buddhist statues throughout Asia, or the ancient Muslim mosques throughout the Middle East and Central Asia. It would be difficult to argue that contemporary culture has more relevance to today's students when compared with the relevance of these examples of past arts and literature.

  At times it is difficult to determine what exactly is the difference between contemporary culture and the arts and literature of the past. Shakespeare's classic writings are continuously being adapted into current movies that are often big hits with students and the general population as a whole. Millions of people every year view classic works of art in museums all over the world. Readings of religious texts have never gone out of style with a large part of the world's population. Clashes between centuries-old cultures and religions, such as that of Western countries and Islamic extremists and that of Hindus and Muslims in India, demonstrate that the religious artifacts that could be called arts and literature of the past are very much a part of contemporary culture.

  While the past can certainly not be ignored, a large part of what students must learn at university is based on contemporary culture. Most religious learning, at least of one's own religion, occurs either at home or early on in a student's education. At the university level, studies of politics, business and the computer sciences must deal in great detail with the latest advances in contemporary culture in order to remain up to date and relevant. Other subjects, such as mathematics, agriculture, and the arts and literature themselves look largely to the past for the core knowledge that is taught in these courses. The application of these lessons from the past are entirely appropriate to help put contemporary culture into some type of historical context that can help students to understand and comprehend the rapidly changing world that they are living in.

  It would seem self-evident that a properly educated university student must find a balance between studying contemporary culture without neglecting the study of arts and literature of the past. The study of one is not mutually exclusive of the study of the other. The benefits of a well-rounded education come from not only knowing the state of the world as it exists today but also in knowing how the world arrived at this stage of development in the first place.

  观点陈述型作文/[题目]

  "学院和大学应该开设更多通俗音乐、电影、广告和电视方面的课程,因为当代文化要比昔日的艺术和文学对于学生具有远为密切的联系。"

  范文正文

  只要当代文化--依照其定义--具有当代性,它无疑比昔日的艺术和文学对学生乃至普通大众具有一种远为直接的影响。同时代的事件会直接影响到生活在那一时代的每一个人,因为它们的发生与这个人的生存正值同时。但这里我们可以复述一位著名哲学家的话,"那些无法从历史中汲取教训者注定会重蹈覆辙"。在相当大的程度上,昔日的艺术和文学造就了我们现如今的情状,其作用即使并不甚于当代文化,至少与当代文化相同。 生活于当今时代的每个人以一种或另一种方式深受过去事件的影响。昔日的事件直接导致了世界目前的运转方式。艺术和文学是保存和记载得最为完善的一种资源,它们能使我们与过去实际发生过的事情直接联系起来。 不妨考虑一下《圣经》,《可兰经》一类的宗教著作,孔子的著述,以及那些与佛教、印度教和所有其他宗教相关的著作。这些直接地与当今时代人们的行为相关,并在某些情形中在相当大的程度上控制着当今时代人们的行为,虽然它们大多数创作于数百年、甚至数千年之前。与这些宗教相关的艺术品同样也产生了深远的影响。我们不妨考虑一下梵蒂冈西斯廷教堂内米开朗琪罗的作品,或遍布亚洲的无数具有历史性意义的佛教像,或者散布在整个中东和中亚地区的古代穆斯林清真寺。与这些过去的艺术和文学实例的相关性相比,当代文化被说成与当今学生更密切相关,这一论点是难以成立的。

  有些时候,人们难以确定当代文化与过去的艺术和文学的差异究竟何在。莎士比亚的经典之作不断地被改编成当代电影,常常能成为学生和普通大众的大热门。每年,全世界数百万人在博物馆观赏古典艺术作品。宗教文本的阅读对于世界相当大的一部分人口而言从来就不失为一种风尚。数个世纪古老的文化与宗教之间的冲突,如西方国家与伊斯兰极端主义者之间的冲突,以及印度国内印度教徒与穆斯林教徒之间的冲突,例证着那些可被称为昔日艺术和文学的宗教事物在很大程度上实乃当代文化的一部分。

  虽然过去无疑不能被淡忘,但学生在大学中所学内容,很大一部分是基于当代文化的。大多数宗教学习,至少一个人自身的宗教的学习,或始于家庭,或始于学生受教育的早期。在大学这一层次上,对政治、商科以及计算机科学的学习,与当代文化中的最新进步深深相涉,以便使人与时俱进,与时代紧密相关。其它的学科,如数学、农业、艺术与文学,很大程度上是从过去的源泉获取这些课程中所传授的核心知识。这些来自过去的课程的应用完全是恰当的,有助于将当代文化置于某种历史架构之中,去帮助学生领略和理解他们所生活于其中的那个变化迅速的世界。

  有一点似乎是不证自明的,即一个受过恰当教育的大学生必须在学习当代文化与不偏废昔日艺术和文学之间寻找到某种平衡。对两者的学习并非互为排斥。一种综合全面的教育,其益处不仅在于让人知道当今世界所处的状态,而且亦在于首先要让人弄清世界是何以抵达目前这一发展阶段的。

  (605 words)

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