注：由于关于claim的问题方式有两次，笔者统一归纳总结成为一种方式，故图中展示的只有五种。仔细关注下statement, recommendation, claim这三个单词，他们在某些方面具有程度递进的关系。
1. Statement: the expression in spoken or written words of something such as a fact, intention, or policy, or an instance of this.意为陈述某一事实，意图，政策。重点在于陈述。
2. Recommendation: a suggestion as to what is a good or sensible thing to do or use in the circumstances意为合理的建议(比陈述事实更近了一步)
3. Claim: maintain something is true: to say, without proof or evidence, that something is true 意为声明，即便在没有证据的情况下仍然坚持声称某事为真实的
1. Statement (以下是事实陈述的例子)
i. The luxuries and conveniences of contemporary life prevent people from developing into truly strong and independent individuals.
ii. In any field of inquiry, the beginner is more likely than the expert to make important contributions.
iii. As we acquire more knowledge, things do not become more comprehensible, but more complex and mysterious.
iv. It is primarily through our identification with social groups that we define ourselves.
v. The greatness of individuals can be decided only by those who live after them, not by their contemporaries.
vi. In order for any work of art-for example, a film, a novel, a poem, or a song-to have merit, it must be understandable to most people.
i. Scientists and other researchers should focus their research on areas that are likely to benefit the greatest number of people.
ii. Nations should suspend government funding for the arts when significant numbers of their citizens are hungry or unemployed.
iii. All parents should be required to volunteer time to their children's schools.
iv. Colleges and universities should require their students to spend at least one semester studying in a foreign country.
v. Educators should base their assessment of students' learning not on students' grasp of facts but on the ability to explain the ideas, trends, and concepts that those facts illustrate.
vi. College students should base their choice of a field of study on the availability of jobs in that field.
i. Claim: Researchers should not limit their investigations to only those areas in which they expect to discover something that has an immediate, practical application.;;; Reason: It is impossible to predict the outcome of a line of research with any certainty.
ii. Claim: Researchers should not limit their investigations to only those areas in which they expect to discover something that has an immediate, practical application.;;; Reason: It is impossible to predict the outcome of a line of research with any certainty.
iii. Claim: Knowing about the past cannot help people to make important decisions today.;;;Reason: We are not able to make connections between current events and past events until we have some distance from both.
iv. Claim: Major policy decisions should always be left to politicians and other government experts.;;;Reason: Politicians and other government experts are more informed and thus have better judgment and perspective than do members of the general public.
v. Claim: Colleges and universities should specify all required courses and eliminate elective courses in order to provide clear guidance for students.;;;Reason: College students-like people in general-prefer to follow directions rather than make their own decisions.
vi. Scandals are useful because they focus our attention on problems in ways that no speaker or reformer ever could.