# 新gre作文官方范文全解析（二）

2011-06-22 13:58

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【 liuxue86.com - GRE作文 】

1、在拿到题目后应该找出这些：what is offered as evidence, support, or proof;

what is explicitly stated, claimed, or concluded;what is assumed or supposed, perhaps without justification or proof;what is not stated, but necessarily follows from what is stated。总结一下：即论据，结论，推理过程中的未加证明的假设，论据中的潜在后果。这四点都是需要我们尽量展示在第一段里面的。

2、同时，还要考虑原题目中的逻辑链：In addition, you should consider the structure of the argument。在这过程中更重要的是：sometimes implicit steps in the thinking process and consider whether the movement from each one to the next is logically sound。这是我们攻击的要点，尤其是隐含的逻辑步骤。

3、在分析时：You will not be expected to know methods of analysis or technical terms.随后在范文中可以看出，几乎是没有那种像新东方那样精确错误名词的，而只是就着错误本身的逻辑进行分析。不需要给人感觉咱们特意学过逻辑，如果拽那些名词就给人感觉咱们特意学过逻辑，嘿嘿那既然是专业的要求也就更加苛刻了。

4、awintro中举一个例子：For instance, in one topic an elementary school principal might conclude that the new playground equipment has improved student attendance because absentee rates have declined since it was installed.论证的思路为：(1)意识到存在它因you will simply need to see that there are other possible explanations for the improved attendance,(2)提供具体的它因 to offer some common-sense examples, (3)从结论考虑，怎样才能使论证完整有力，即如何改进and perhaps to suggest what would be necessary to verify the conclusion. For instance, absentee rates might have decreased because the climate was mild. This would have to be ruled out in order for the principal’s conclusion to be valid.

5、官方认为的有几个关键名词需要解释，其中analysis这个词的解释很重要，很多同学知道这个词的意思是分析，但什么是分析就说得不是很清楚了。这里给出了清晰的答案：the process of breaking something (e.g., an argument) down into its component parts in order to understand how they work together to make up the whole。说白了，就是把原题中的三段式论证给打拆开，逐一地进行分析。同样的analytical writing的核心也就是拆开原命题，分成1串逻辑链，然后一部分一部分地讨论。

6、核心论证方法：找出隐含假设(并质疑)identify as many of its claims, conclusions, and underlying assumptions as possible;寻找它因和寻找反例think of as many alternative explanations and counterexamples as you can;加条件后讨论think of what additional evidence might weaken or lend support to the claims;提出改进方案ask yourself what changes in the argument would make the reasoning more sound。同学们以上四点是核心论证方法!!!所有的满分范文中都用到了这四种方法。

其中，在论证时需要：think of what additional evidence might weaken or lend support to the claims。这里重要的是加上一个常识性条件后，能意识到，有些情况，是支持原命题的。这一点至关重要，我们是讨论，要求同存异，而不是一味的批驳。

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