1.The ancient Greek playwright Euripides followed the established conventions of verse composition less rig- orously at the end of his career than at the beginning. Since the lines from a recently discovered Euripidean play adhere to those conventions as rigorously as do lines from Euripides' early plays, the recently discov- ered play must have been composed early in Euripides’ career. Which of the following is an assumption made in the argument?
(A) All of Euripides' plays were written in verse.
(B) Euripides did not write any plays late in his career in which he imitated the style of his early plays.
(C) Euripides grew increasingly unaware of the established conventions of verse composition as his career progressed.
(D) Late in his career, Euripides was the only playwright of his day who consciously broke with the established conventions of verse composition.
(E) Ancient playwrights tended to be less willing to violate certain conventions early in their careers than they were late
2.In the United States, average fuel efficiency of newly manufactured domestic cars, although remaining worse than that of newly manufactured imported cars, substantially improved between 1983 and 1988. Average fuel efficiency of new domestic cars has not improved since, but the difference in average fuel efficiencies of new domestic cars and new imported cars has steadily decreased. If the statements above are true, which of the following must also be true on the basis of them?
(A) Average fuel efficiency of domestic cars manu- factured after 1988 was better than that of imported cars manufactured before 1988.
(B) Average fuel efficiency of newly manufactured domestic cars has steadily worsened since 1988.
(C) Average fuel efficiency of newly manufactured imported cars has steadily worsened since 1988.
(D) Average fuel efficiency of newly manufactured imported cars has steadily improved since 1983.
(E) Average fuel efficiency of imported cars manu- factured in 1983 was better than that of imported cars manufactured in 1988.
3. Between 1970 and 1980, energy consumption by United States industry peaked and then declined, so that by 1980 total industrial use of energy was below the 1970 level even though total industrial output had grown substantially in the same period. Industry must have instituted highly effective energy conser- vation measures in those years to have achieved such impressive results. Which of the following, if true, most seriously weak- ens the conclusion of the argument?
(A) Many industries switched to the greatest extent possible from high-priced oil to lower-priced alternatives throughout the 1970's.
(B) Total residential energy consumption was higher in the United States in 1980 than it had been in 1970
(C) Many industrial users of energy had paid little attention to energy conservation prior to 1970.
(D) Industrial output grew less rapidly from 1970 to 1980 than it had from 1960 to 1970.
(E) The industries whose production dropped sharply during the 1970's included a disproportionately large number of energy-intensive industries.
4.Many people acquire software programs for their home computers by illegally copying those programs rather than purchasing them. People who own home computers must be making, on average, fewer illegal copies of software programs than before, however, since the average number of software programs that people purchase to use on their home computers has increased substantially over the past five years. Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?
(A) The number of home computers in use has increased substantially over the past five years.
(B) Five years ago, about half of the software pro- grams used on home computers had been illegally copied rather than purchased.
(C) Most people who have home computers use their computers more frequently the longer they have them.
(D) Few people who prefer to copy computer software programs illegally cannot copy the software programs they want because they have no acquaintances who have those software programs.
(E) On average, people with home computers have the same number of software programs today as people with home computers did five years ago.
5.From a newspaper editorial： Many people who are addicted to heroin will even- tually attempt to overcome their addiction, prin- cipally for two reasons：the expense of maintaining a heroin addiction and the fear of arrest. If heroin were legalized and made available cheaply, as some people advocate, neither of these reasons would apply The considerations above can best serve as part of an argument that
(A) legalizing the sale of heroin would cause the price of this drug to go down
(B) making it easier for heroin addicts to obtain treatment for their addiction would encourage many heroin addicts to attempt to overcome their addiction
(C) legalizing the sale of heroin would increase the number of crimes committed by heroin addicts to support their addiction
(D) making heroin available legally and cheaply would make it less likely that heroin addicts will attempt to overcome their addiction
(E) decreasing the severity of penalties for individuals who use heroin would not increase the number of new heroin addicts
6.Stem borers are insect pests that often ruin North American corn crops. On some other continents, crop damage by stem borers is controlled by a certain species of wasp. Since these wasps eat nothing but stem borers, importing them into North America will keep crop damage from stem borers under control without endangering other North American insect species. Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
(A) Corn is the principal food of stem borers that live on continents other than North America.
(B) The wasps are capable of surviving in North America long enough to eat significant numbers of stem borers.
(C) No wasp in North America is closely related to the species of wasp that eats stem borers.
(D) On continent other than North America, the wasps control stem borers more effectively than does any other pest control measure.
(E) Corn crops on continents other than North America are not damaged by any insect pests other than stem borers.
7.In the country of Laurelia, legal restrictions on the sale of lock-picking equipment were relaxed ten years ago, and since then Laurelia's burglary rate has risen dramatically. Hence, since legally purchased lock-picking equipment was used in most burglaries, reintroducing strict limits on the sale of this equipment would help to reduce Laurelia's burglary rate. Which of the following, if true, gives the strongest support to the argument?
(A) Laurelia's overall crime rate has risen dramatically over the last ten years.
(B) There is wide popular support in Laurelia for the reintroduction of strict limits on the sale of lock- picking equipment.
(C) The reintroduction of strict limits on the sale of lock-picking equipment in Laurelia would not prevent legitimate use of this equipment by police and other public safety officials.
(D) Most lock-picking equipment used in Laurelia is fragile and usually breaks irreparably within a few years of purchase.
(E) The introduction five years ago of harsher punish- ments for people convicted of burglary had little effect on Laurelia's burglary rate.
8.Salesperson：The picture tube is the central com- ponent of any television, and Picturesque tele-
visions use the same high-quality picture tubes as those used in TruVue televisions. Since you pay a much lower price for a Picturesque, you pay a lower price for a television with the same picture quality when you buy a Picturesque instead of a TruVue. Which of the following is an assumption that, if justified, would allow the conclusion of the sales- person's argument to be properly drawn?
(A) TruVue televisions are much more widely advertised than are Picturesque televisions.
(B) The picture quality of a television is determined solely by the quality of its picture tube.
(C) A salesperson earns much less on the sale of each Picturesque television than on the sale of each TruVue television.
(D) Many more Picturesque televisions are sold each year than TruVue television.
(E) Picturesque televisions are assembled in the same factory that assembles TruVue tele- visions.
9.As people age, the number of calories they need each day decreases while their daily requirement of vitamin B6 increases. Clearly, unless older people take B6 supplements or eat a diet that contains more B6 than did the diet they ate when they were young adults, there is little likelihood that they will get B6 in needed amounts.Which of the following would be most helpful to know to evaluate the argument?
(A) Whether the relative decrease in the daily requirement of calories is greater than the relativeincrease in the daily requirement of vitamin B6.
(B) Whether the form of vitamin B6 found in dietary supplements is more readily absorbed andutilized by the body than is the form of this vitamin that is found in food.
(C) Whether the consequences of not getting vitamin B6 in required daily amounts are more serious for older people than for young adults.
(D) Whether the diets of most people, when they are young adults, include vitamin B6 in amounts far in excess of their daily needs.
(E) Whether the diets of older people are more likely than those of young adults to include one or more meals a day that are devoid of foods containing vitamin B6.
10.In a recent film set in seventeenth-century Europe, the hero is seen doing the crawl, a swimming stroke not known in Europe before the 1920's.However, since moviegoers obviously are not experts in the history of swimming strokes, for most of the film's audiences this blunder clearly cannot have interfered with whatever sense of historical authenticity the film otherwise achieved. Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument given?
(A) The film was widely praised for being historically plausible, even though it portrayed many events that were not historically attested.
(B) The scene that shows the film's hero doing the crawl is a rescue scene pivotal to the film's action, and parts of it are even shown a second time, in a flashback.
(C) Makers of historical films, even of those set as recently as the nineteenth century, routinely strike compromises between historical authenticity and the need to keep their material accessible to a modern audience, as in the actors' speech patterns.
(D) The crawl that European swimmers used in the 1920's was much less efficient and more awkward-looking than the crawl that is currently taught.
(E) A slightly earlier film featuring an eighteenth century sea battle in Europe was ridiculed in numerous popular reviews for the historical lapse of showing a sailor doing the crawl in swimming to safety.
11.The government of Pontran claims that Tor City, one of the six major cities in that country, is alone among Pontran's cities in having sustained strong job growth this year. Clearly, however, any job growth this year. Clearly, however, any job growth there must be purely imaginary; in fact, in Tor City and only there, more people are unemployed this year than were last year.The argument countering the government's claim depends on the assumption that：
(A) unemployed workers in Pontran did not, in significant numbers, move to Tor City when the government claimed Tor City had strong job growth
(B) the unemployment rate in Tor City is higher year than in any previous year
(C) actions taken by the government of Pontran significantly affect the unemployment rate in Tor City
(D) the unemployment rate in Tor City, though increased, is still the lowest of any city in Pontran
(E) there is no significant seasonal variation in the unemployment rate for Pontran as a whole