1. Aedes albopictus, a variety of mosquito that has recently established itself in the southeastern United States, is less widespread than the indigenous swamp mosquito. Both the swamp mosquito and A. albopictus can carry viruses that are sometimes fatal to humans, but A. albopictus is a greater danger to public health. Each of the following, if true, provides additional information that strengthens the judgment given about the danger to public health EXCEPT:
(A) Unlike the swamp mosquito, A. albopictus originated in Asia, and larvae of it were not observed in the United States before the mid- 1980's.
(B) Unlike the swamp mosquito, A. albopictus tends to spend most of its adult life near human habitation.
(C) Unlike swamp mosquito larvae, A. albopictus larvae survive in flower pots, tin cans, and many small household objects that hold a little water.
(D) In comparison with the swamp mosquito, A. albopictus hosts a much wider variety of viruses known to cause serious diseases in humans.
(E) A. albopictus seeks out a much wider range of animal hosts than does the swamp mosq-uito, and it is more likely to bite humans.
2. The Environmental Protection Agency must respond to the hazard to children's health posed by exposure to asbestos fibers released in the air in school classrooms. Since it is impossible to close school buildings, the best plan would be to initiate programs that mandate the immediate removal of asbestos from all the school buildings that are found to contain asbestos, regardless of whether or not the buildings are in use. Which of the following, if true, is the strongest reason for the Environmental Protection Agency not to follow the plan outlined above?
(A) The techniques available for removing asbestos often increase the level of airborne asbestos.
(B) Schools are places where asbestos is especially likely to be released into the air by the action of the occupants.
(C) Children exposed to airborne asbestos run a greater risk of developing cancer than do adults exposed to airborne asbestos.
(D) The cost of removing asbestos varies from school to school, depending on accessibility and the quantity of asbestos to be removed.
(E) It is impossible to determine with any degree of certainty if and when construction materials that contain asbestos will break down and release asbestos fibers into the air.
3. A person's cholesterol level will decline significantly if that person increases the number of meals eaten per day, but only if there is no significant increase in the amount of food eaten. However, most people who increase the number of meals they eat each day will eat a lot more food as well. If the statements above are true, which of the following is most strongly supported by them?
(A) For most people, cholesterol level is not significantly affected by the amount of food eaten per day.
(B) For most people, the amount of food eaten per meal is most strongly affected by the time of day at which the meal is eaten.
(C) For most people, increasing the number of meals eaten per day will not result in a significantly lower cholesterol level.
(D) For most people, the total amount of food eaten per day is unaffected by the number of mealseaten per day.
(E) For most people, increasing the number of meals eaten per day will result in a significant change in the types of food eaten.
4. A certain type of dinnerware made in Ganandia contains lead. Lead can leach into acidic foods, and Ganandians tend to eat highly acidic foods. However, the extreme rarity of lead poisoning in Ganandia indicates that the dinnerware does not contain dangerous amounts of lead. Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument above?
(A) The dinnerware is produced exclusively for sale outside Ganandia.
(B) Ganandian foods typically are much more acidic than foods anywhere else in the world.
(C) The only source of lead poisoning in Ganandia is lead that has leached into food.
(D) Most people who use the dinnerware are not aware that it contains lead.
(E) Acidic foods can leach lead from dinnerware even if that dinnerware has a protective coating.
5. Sergeant Our police academy no longer requires its applicants to pass a physical examination before being admitted to the academy. As a result, several candidates with weak hearts and high blood pressure have been admitted. Hence, we can expect our future police force to have more health problems than our current police force. Knowledge of each of the following would be relevant to determining the reliability of the sergeant's prediction EXCEPT whether
(A) police officer candidates are screened for high blood pressure before joining the police force
(B) the police officer candidates who are not healthy now are likely to be unhealthy as police officers
(C) graduates of the police academy are required to pass a physical examination
(D) the health of the current police officer candidates is worse than was the health of police officer candidates in the past
(E) a police officer's health is a reliable indicator of the officer's performance
6. Because adult iguanas on Plazos Island are much smaller than adult iguanas of the same species on nearby islands, researchers assumed that environmental conditions on Plazos favor the survival of relatively smaller baby iguanas (hatchlings) in each yearly brood. They discovered instead that for each of the past three years, 10 percent of the smaller and 40 percent of the larger hatchlings survived, because larger hatchlings successfully evade their predators. Which of the following, if true about Plazos but not about nearby islands, contributes most to an explanation of the long-standing tendency of iguanas on Plazos to be smaller than those of the same age on nearby islands?
(A) Periodic wind shifts cause extended dry spells on Plazos every year, putting the larger iguanas, whose bodies require relatively more water, at a great disadvantage.
(B) There are exactly three species of iguanas on Plazos but only two species of seagulls that feed on iguanas, and a relatively small percentage of each year's hatchlings are consumed by seagulls.
(C) Wild cats, which were introduced as pets by early settlers and which were formerly major predators of Plazos iguanas, were recently killed off by a disease specific to cats.
(D) The iguanas on Plazos are a relatively ancient part of the island's animal life.
(E) Both land and marine iguanas live on Plazos, and the land iguanas tend to be larger than marine iguanas of the same age
7. Every human being who has ever lived had two parents. Therefore, more people were alive threethousand years ago than are alive now. The reasoning in the argument is flawed because it
(A) overlooks the number of people in each generation during the last three thousand years who left no descendants
(B) disregards possible effects of disasters such as famines and plagues on human history
(C) overestimates the mathematical effect of repeated doublings on population size
(D) fails to take into account that people now alive have overlapping sets of ancestors
(E) fails to consider that accurate estimation of the number of people alive three thousand years ago might be impossible
8. Each of the academic journals Thought and Ergo has a review committee to prevent misattributed quotations from appearing in its published articles. Nevertheless, about ten percent of the quotations in Thought's published articles are misattributed, whereas Ergo contains no misattributions. Ergo's committee is more effective, therefore, than Thought's at finding misattributed quotations. The argument above assumes that
(A) most of the articles submitted to Thought for publication contain misattributed quotations
(B) there are at least some misattributed quotations in articles submitted to Ergo for publication
(C) the members of Ergo's committee are, on the whole, more knowledgeable than are the members of Thought's committee
(D) the number of misattributed quotations in a journal is an accurate measure of how carefully that journal is edited
(E) the authors who submit articles to Ergo for publication are more thorough in attributing quotations than are the authors who submit articles to Thought
9. In the last few decades, grassy wetlands, essential to the nesting and breeding of ducks, geese, swans, and most other species of waterfowl, have been extensively drained and cultivated in southern Canada and the northern United States, Duck populations in North American have plummeted during this time, but populations of swans and geese have been affected less dramatically. Which of the following, if true, most helps to explain the difference mentioned above?
(A) Prohibition of hunting of waterfowl is easier to enforce in areas under cultivation than in wild lands.
(B) Most geese and swans nest and breed farther north than ducks do, in areas that still are not cultivated.
(C) Land that has been harvested rarely provides food suitable for waterfowl.
(D) Goose and swan populations decline in periods of drought, when breeding sites are fewer.
(E) Because they are larger than ducks, geese and swans have a harder time finding protected nesting sites in areas that are cultivated.
10. A researcher found that, in proportion to their body weights, children eat more carbohydrates than adults do. Children also exercise more than adults do. The researcher hypothesized that carbohydrate consumption varies in direct proportion to the calorie demands associated with different levels of exercise. Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the researcher's hypothesis?
(A) More carbohydrates are eaten per capita in nations where the government spends more per capita on public exercise programs.
(B) Children who do not participate in organized sports tend to eat fewer carbohydrates than children who participate in organized sports.
(C) Consumption of increased amounts of carbohydrates is a popular tactic of runners preparing for long-distance races.
(D) Periods of physical growth require a relatively higher level of carbohydrate consumption than otherwise.
(E) Though carbohydrates are necessary for the maintenance of good health, people who consume more carbohydrates are not necessarily healthier.
11. Experts removed a layer of eighteenth-century red paint from a figure in a painting by a sixteenth-century Italian artist, revealing a layer of green paint underneath. Since the green paint dates from the sixteenth century, the figure must have been green, not red, when the painting was completed in 1563.Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?
(A) The experts had been commissioned to restore the painting to the colors it had when it was completed.
(B) X-rays reveal an additional layer of paint beneath the green paint on the figure.
(C) Chemical analyses were used to determine the ages of the red paint and the green paint.
(D) The red paint was added in the eighteenth century in an attempt to repair damage done in the late seventeenth century.
(E) Red paint on the robe of another figure in the painting dates from the sixteenth century.
12. Whenever a French novel is translated into English, the edition sold in Britain should be in British English. If the edition sold in Britain were in American English, its idioms and spellings would appear to British readers to be strikingly American and thus to conflict with the novel's setting. The recommendation is based on which of the following assumptions?
(A) The authors of French novels are usually native speakers of French.
(B) A non-British reader of a novel written in British English will inevitably fail to understand the meanings of some of the words and idioms in the novel.
(C) No French novel that is to be sold in Britain in English translation is set in the United States.
(D) A British reader of a British novel will notice that the idioms and spellings used in the novel are British.
(E) Most French novels are not translated into both British English and American English.
13. Although it is assumed that peacocks' magnificent tails function essentially to attract peahens, no one knows why it should be magnificent tails that give a competitive advantage in securing mates. One explanation is that peahens are more likely to mate with peacocks with magnificent tails than with peacocks that lack magnificent tails. Which of the following is an error of reasoning exemplified by the explanation?
(A) Attributing to animals qualities that are characteristically human
(B) Extending a conclusion that is true of only one species of a genus to all species of the genus
(C) Offering as an explanation a hypothesis that in principle can be neither verified nor proved false
(D) Offering the phenomenon that is to be explained as the explanation of that phenomenon
(E) Assuming without warrant that peacocks with magnificent tails are likely to have other features strongly attractive to peahens