1. Auditor from Acme Industries: Last week at Acme Bakery, about six percent of the pastries baked during the night shift were found to be imperfect, but no imperfect pastries were found among those baked during the day shift. Pastries are inspected during the same shift in which they are baked, so clearly the night-shift quality control inspectors were more alert, despite their nighttime work hours, than the dayshift quality control inspectors. The argument depends on the assumption that
(A) at least some imperfect pastries were baked during the day shift at Acme Bakery last week
(B) not all of the pastries that the night-shift quality control inspectors judged to be imperfect were in fact imperfect
(C) the night-shift quality control inspectors received more training in quality control procedures than did the day-shift quality control inspectors
(D) in a normal week, fewer than six percent of the pastries baked during the night shift at Acme Bakery are found to be imperfect
(E) there are only two shifts per day at Acme Bakery, a day shift and a night shift
2. Spiders of many species change color to match the pigmentation of the flowers they sit on. The insects preyed on by those spiders, unlike human beings, possess color discrimination so acute that they can readily see the spiders despite the seeming camouflage. Clearly, then, it must be in evading their own predators that the spiders’ color changes are useful to them. Which of the following, if true,most strengthens the argument?
(A) Among the animals that feed on color- changing spiders are a few species of bat, which find their prey through sound echoes.
(B) Certain animals that feed on color-changing spiders do so only sparingly in order to keep from ingesting harmful amounts of spider venom.
(C) Color-changing spiders possess color discrimination that is more acute than that of spiders that lack the ability to change color.
(D) Color-changing spiders spin webs that are readily seen by the predators of those spiders.
(E) The color discrimination of certain birds that feed on color-changing spiders is no more acute than that of human beings.
3. Which of the following most logically completes the argument below? Each year every employee of SAI Corporation must enroll in one of the two health insurance plans offered by SAI. One plan requires a sizable monetary contribution from employees; the other plan is paid for entirely by SAI. Many SAI employees enroll in the plan requiring employee contributions. This fact does not show that they feel that this plan’s benefits are superior to those provided by the plan requiring no employee contribution since----.
(A) the plan that requires an employee contribution costs and enrolled employee significantly less per year than do typical health insurance plans offered by corporations other than SAI
(B) only SAI employees who have worked for SAI for at least fifteen years are eligible to enroll in the plan paid for entirely by SAI
(C) the two health insurance plans currently offered by SAI are substantially the same plans SAI has offered for the past ten years
(D) most of the SAI employees enrolled in the plan paid for entirely by SAI are under 50 years old
(E) both plans offered by SAI provide benefits not only for employees of SAI but also for children and spouses of enrolled employees
4. V-shaped walled structures in central Asia were used by prehistoric hunters who drove hoofed animals into an enclosure at the point of the V. The central Asians who built these structures probably learned this hunting technique from invaders from southwest Asia, because the arrival of invaders from a region in southwest Asia where similar structures had long been used coincides roughly with the building of the earliest of such structures in central Asia. Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?
(A) Excavations in the central Asian region do not indicate whether invaders from southwest Asia settled permanently in central Asia.
(B) The V-shaped structures in central Asia were roughly 70 meters long, whereas the similar structures in southwest Asia were usually over 300 meters long.
(C) The walls of the structures in central Asia were made from earth, whereas the walls of the structures in southwest Asia were made of rock.
(D) The earliest examples of V-shaped walled structures in central Asia were of an advanced design.
(E) Some of the walled structures used for hunting in southwest Asia were built well after the earliest such structures were built in central Asia.
5. Which of the following most logically completes the argument? Virtually all respondents to a recent voter survey reported allegiance to one of the two major political parties. But over a third of the voters from each party reported being so disenchanted with the governing philosophies of both parties that they might join a third major party if one were formed. Even if this poll reflects general voter sentiment, however, there is no chance that a new party could attract a third of all voters, since----.
(A) the current level of disenchantment with the governing philosophies of the two major parties is unprecedented
(B) the disenchanted members of the two major parties are attracted to very different governing philosophies
(C) most respondents overestimated the proportion of voters disenchanted with both parties, saving that the proportion was more than 50 percent
(D) nearly half of all respondents reported that they would be more likely to cease voting altogether than to switch their party affiliation
(E) any new party would be likely to inspire citizens who have not voted before to join and to become regular voters
6. When amphibians first appeared on Earth millions of years ago, the amount of ultraviolet radiation penetrating Earth’s atmosphere was much greater than it is today. Therefore, current dramatic decreases in amphibian populations cannot be the result of recent increases in ultraviolet radiation penetrating Earth’s atmosphere. Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
(A) The eggs of modern amphibians are not significantly more vulnerable to ultraviolet radiation than the eggs of the first amphibians were.
(B) Modern amphibians are not as likely as the first amphibians were to live in habitats that shield them from ultraviolet radiation.
(C) Populations of modern amphibians are not able to adapt to changing levels of radiation as readily as populations of early amphibians were.
(D) The skin of amphibians is generally more sensitive to ultraviolet radiation than the skin of other animals is.
(E) The skin of amphibians is less sensitive to ultraviolet radiation than to other types of radiation
7. Chris: Hundreds of traffic accidents annually are attributable to the poor condition of our city’sstreets. The streets must therefore be repaired to save lives. Leslie: For less than the cost of thoserepairs, the city could improve its mass transit system and thus dramatically reducetrafficcongestion, which contributes significantly to those traffic accidents. The city cannot afford to do both, so it should improve mass transit, because reduced traffic congestion has additional advantages. Which of the following best describes the point at issue between Chris and Leslie?
(A) Whether a certain problem in fact exists
(B) How a certain problem came into being
(C) Who is responsible for addressing a certain problem
(D) Whether the city has sufficient financial resources to address a certain problem
(E) How the city can best address a certain problem
8. According to ancient records, the first tax that the government of Selea imposed on a basic commodity was a tax of two centima coins on every jar of cooking oil sold in Selea. Tax records show that despite a stable population and strict enforcement of tax laws, revenues from the oil tax declined steeply over the first two years that the tax was in effect. Which of the following, if true, most helps to explain the decline in Selean oil-tax revenues?
(A) During the decade following the implementation of the tax, the average household income in Selea rose steadily.
(B) Two years after implementing the tax on cooking oil, the Selean government began to implement taxes on numerous other basic commodities.
(C) Jars of cooking oil were traditionally bought as wedding gifts in Selea at the time the tax went into effect, and gifts of cooking oil increased after the implementation of the tax.
(D) After the tax was imposed., Selean merchants began selling cooking oil in larger jars than before.
(E) Few Selean households began to produce their own cooking oil after the tax was imposed
9. Housing construction materials give off distinctive sounds when exposed to high temperatures. Acoustic sensors accurately detect such sounds and fire alarms incorporating acoustic sensors can provide an early warning of house fires, allowing inhabitants to escape before being overcome by smoke. Since smoke inhalation is the most common cause of fatalities in house fires, mandating acoustic-sensor-based alarms instead of smoke detectors will eliminate house fire as a major cause of death. Which of the following, if true, most weakens the argument given?
(A) The present high cost of acoustic-sensor- based alarm systems will decline if their use becomes widespread.
(B) When fully ignited, many materials used in housing construction give off sounds that are audible even from several hundred yards away.
(C) Many fires begin in cushions or in mattresses, producing large amounts of smoke without giving off any sounds.
(D) Two or more acoustic-sensor-based alarms would be needed to provide adequate protection in some larger houses.
(E) Smoke detectors have been responsible for saving many lives since their use became widespread.
10. In December 1992 Tideville Shopping Mall repaired and improved the lighting in the mall’s parking lots, and in 1993 car thefts and attempted car thefts from those lots decreased by 76 percent from the previous year. Since potential car thieves are generally deterred by good lighting, the decrease can be attributed to these improvements.Which of the following, if true, most helps to strengthen the argument above?
(A) Both in 1992 and in 1993, most of the cars stolen from the mall’s parking lots were relatively new and expensive luxury models.
(B) Most of the cars that were stolen from the mall in 1992 were stolen between 11 A. M. and 4 P.M.
(C) Tideville Shopping Mall is one of only three shopping malls in the Tideville area.
(D) In the town of Tideville, where the mall is located, the number of car thefts was about the same in 1993 as in 1992.
(E) In 1993 the number of security officers patrolling the mall’s parking lots at night was doubled.
11. Legislator: We should not waste any more of the taxpayers’ money on the government’s job-creation program. The unemployment rate in this country has actually risen since the program was begun, so the program has clearly been a failure. Which of the following is an assumption on which the legislator’s argument depends?
(A) The budget of the job-creation program has typically increased every year.
(B) The unemployment rate would not have risen even more than it has if the job- creation program had not been in existence.
(C) The unemployment rate is higher now than at any time before the inception of the job-creation program.
(D) If the job-creation program had been run more efficiently, it could have better served its purpose.
(E) Other government programs are no more effective in reducing unemployment than is the job-creation program.
12. Which of the following most logically completes the argument? Each year a consumer agency ranks all domestic airlines for on-time performance during the previous year, using as its sole criterion the percentage of each airline’s flights that left no more than fifteen minutes late. The agency does not count delays due to mechanical reasons, but the fact that the percentage of delayed flights hat were delayed for mechanical reasons was approximately the same for all domestic airlines last year means that
(A) including delays for mechanical reasons in calculating the airline rankings for on- time performance would have had little, if any, effect on last year’s rankings
(B) airlines would work harder to reduce delays if delays for mechanical reasons were included in the determination of on- time performance rankings
(C) the agency’s rankings do not give consumers an accurate idea of how a given airline compares to other airlines with respect to the percentage of flights delayed last year
(D) those airlines with the best on-time performance record last year also had the greatest number of delays for mechanical reasons
(E) on-time performance was approximately the same for all domestic airlines last year
13. No one can be licensed as an electrician in Parker County without first completing a certain course in electrical safety procedures. All students majoring in computer technology at Parker County Technical College must complete that course before graduating. Therefore, any of the college’s graduates in computer technology can be licensed as an electrician in Parker County.The answer to which of the following would be most helpful in evaluating the argument?
(A) Is a college degree a requirement for being licensed as an electrician in Parker County?
(B) Do all students majoring in computer technology who complete the course in electrical safety procedures at Parker County Technical College eventually graduate?
(C) Is completion of a course in electrical safety procedures the only way a person licensed as an electrician in Parker County can have learned those procedures?
(D) Is a period of practical apprenticeship a requirement for becoming a licensed electrician in Parker County but not for graduating from the college in computer technology?
(E) Do any of the students at Parker County Technical College who are not majoring in computer technology take the course in electrical safety procedures?