42. People who engage in scuba diving are healthier， on average， than people who do not engage in this activity.Therefore， scuba diving tends to promote improved health.
The argument is most vulnerable to criticism on the grounds that it
(A)presupposes that everyone who takes up scuba diving does so solely for health reasons
(B)leads to a further and falsifiable conclusion that no one can achieve good health without engaging in scuba diving
(C)fails to point out that a small number of people are seriously injured in scuba diving accidents each year
(D)treats a precondition for improving one's health as though it were something that by itself could ensure good health
(E)overlooks the possibility that people generally do not take up scuba diving unless they are in good health
43. Which of the following most logically completes the argument below?In recent years， the proportion of car buyers who buy new cars rather than used cars has declined.Some consumers have attributed this change to an increase in new-car prices.As evidence of the price increase，they cite figures that show that， even adjusting for inflation， the price that the buyer of a new car pays，on average， is far higher now than a few years ago.
This evidence is unpersuasive， however， because
(A)the value of a car that is bought new declines much more rapidly than does the value of a car that is bought used
(B)after someone has bought a car， it might be several years before that person next buys a car
(C)a decline in the proportion of car buyers who buy new cars must necessarily mean that the proportion who buy used cars has increased
(D)the relative increase in used-car sales might be explained by the decisions of only a small proportion of all car buyers
(E)the change in the average price paid for a new car could result solely from more people's rejecting inexpensive new cars in favor of used cars.
44. In Bassaria a group of that country's most senior judges has criticized the uniform mandatory sentences recently introduced for certain specific crimes.The judges argue that such sentences， by depriving them of all discretion in setting sentences， make it impos-sible for them to consider either aggravating or exten-uating circumstances and so make it impossible to achieve true justice―the fitting of the severity of the punishment to the gravity of the particular crime.
Which of the following， if true， provides the strongest evidence for the claim that in Bassaria the newly introduced mandatory sentences are not necessarily a change for the worse with respect to achieving true justice as defined in the argument?
(A)Before mandatory sentencing， judges in eastern Bassaria imposed strikingly different sentences from those in western Bassaria for equally grave instances of the same kind of offense.
(B)In Bassaria the frequency of crimes that have been made subject to mandatory sentences is lower now than it was just prior to the intro-duction of mandatory sentencing.
(C)The law introducing mandatory sentences was passed in the legislature of Bassaria by a large majority and is unlikely to be repealed in the foreseeable future.
(D)There used to be a wide difference between the minimum and the maximum sentences allowed by law in cases of crimes now subject to man-datory sentences.
(E)In Bassaria judges are appointed for life and are thus not easily influenced by political pressure groups.
45. Each of two particular inspection systems that are based on different principles would detect all product flaws but would also erroneously reject three percent of flawless products.Assuming there is no overlap between the products erroneously rejected by the two systems and also no interference between the systems if both operate，using both systems and rejecting only those products found flawed by both would be a way of avoiding all erroneous rejections.
Which of the following most precisely characterizes the reasoning in the argument?
(A)The reasoning is conclusive， that is， the conclusion cannot be false if the statements offered in its support are true.
(B)The reasoning is strong but not conclusive， if the statements offered in support of the conclusion are true， they provide good grounds for that conclu-sion， though it is possible that additional infor-mation might weaken the argument.
(C)The reasoning is weak; the statements offered in support of the conclusion， though relevant to it，by themselves provide at best inadequate grounds for the conclusion.
(D)The reasoning is flawed in that the conclusion is no more than a paraphrase of one of the pieces of evidence offered in its support.
(E)The reasoning is flawed in that the argument treats evidence that a factor is necessary to bring about an event as if it were evidence that the factor is sufficient to bring about that event.
参考答案： 42.E 43.E 44.A 45.A